Osteoarthritis

21 Mar, 2022

Arthroscopic roughness is a common and widespread disease, especially in the elderly. Since knee joints bear the largest share of the body’s weight in full and endure sustained efforts while standing, sitting, and walking, they are the most at risk as erosion and damage of the outer cartilage of the joint can occur.

The knee joint is one of the most critical parts in the human body. It consists of the lower end of the femoral bone, the leg bone’s upper end, and the patellofemoral joint (kneecap). All knee bones are covered with soft, tactile knuckle cartilage and are surrounded by a thin lining called the synovial membrane, the source of knee fluid that reduces friction between knee joints during movement.

Due to friction, the knuckle cartilage gradually erodes, the bone reveals and the distance between the femur and the leg bone reduces. This can lead to bone friction and severe pain due to the presence of nerve endings in the bone limbs, later developing into bone anteriorly in the knee.

Causes of Osteoarthritis:

  • Genetic factor is crucial
  • Age: risk increases with age
  • Weight: being overweight adds extra pressure on the knees; one pound in weight adds 3-4 pounds of excess weight on the knees
  • Sex: Women aged 55 are more vulnerable than men
  • Recurrent injuries: usually the result of doing certain jobs or taking unhealthy positions, such as sitting and bending the knee at more than 90 degrees, or putting too much weight on the knee through squatting
  • Knee mechanical infarction: The result of one of the bones of the leg or femur having suffered prior injuries that led to incorrect healing
  • Arthroscopic infections such as rheumatoid arthritis


Symptoms

  • Pain varies in intensity depending on the degree of roughness and place of friction. The pain in the inner side of the knee when walking long distances is the result of thigh bone contact with the leg bone (Tibiofemoral joint), while pain in the front of the knee can occur as a result of friction of the anterior knee/thigh bone (Patellofemoral joint)
  • Inability to move and difficulty in engaging in daily and routine activities
  • Strange, often annoying, sounds when moving the knee
  • Severe pain that wakes up patients, and that happens during the advanced stages of infection


Diagnosis:

Diagnosis begins when the patient visits a therapist, who records the pathological history, conducts general and specific clinical tests on the knee, and requests X-rays, which play an essential role in diagnosing and classifying the disease. In addition, CT scans are needed for severe cases, such as when a significant portion of the bone is lost. A doctor may also request an MRI procedure in specific cases.

Treatment:

    The primary objective of treatment is to alleviate pain, restore normal mobility and help the patient be able to engage in daily activities. Treatment includes:
  • Weight loss, which is an essential factor in treatment to reduce pressure on the knees
  • Physiotherapy and muscle strengthening, especially the muscles around the knee
  • Avoiding inadequate seating and standing postures that cause roughness
  • Taking painkillers and anti-inflammatory medications
  • Knee injection with oily needles such as Hyaluronic


Surgical treatment includes:

  • Endoscopic knee surgery, usually for patients younger than 55, but some medical studies suggest this procedure as ineffective
  • Bone rectum adjustment: this operation is recommended if there is bone deformity and to redistribute weight around the knee
  • Knee joint replacement - surgery in which knee cartilage is replaced with metal or plastic parts. The replacement may include one side or the entire knee to restore the full function of the knee